Friday, November 23, 2012

Classmate That I'm Thankful For

The classmate that I am most thankful for this Thanksgiving is Victoria Linton. Not only is she a nice and dependable friend but she is also a great help, especially when it comes to helping me make corrections on my papers and projects. She's a great person and I am very thankful that I know someone like her.

Word Count: 59

Friday, October 26, 2012

Community Stories

An Account of Experience with Discrimination

This story was very interesting. Primary documents give a more personal and biased perspective of a community because they shape their opinions of an area based on what has happened to them or what they have went through in that community whereas a short story or report is more general and not really personal at all. Sojourner Truth's idea of "the slaveholding spirit" in my opinion means that there is still some adjusting that has to be done in order for the blacks to get used to being freed and shake their slave mentalities. Their communities have shaped them to believe in that mentality because the community that they are used to has made them accept being talked to in the way the train drivers did and so they were made to think that its okay for them to be treated that way. 

Here is New York

This was a very good short story. I think the author starts off by defining New York by what it isn't to address the stereotypes that may be associated with New York or to change the opinions of people immediately. The author says that New York's inability to spread outward contributes to its beauty but to a traveler, this might make New York seem cramped and crowded. Some problems in NY are the hospitals and schools being overcrowded, the expressways are feverish and there is a lack of air and light. People get around and ignore these problems by getting a sense of belonging to something unique, cosmopolitan, mighty and unparalleled. Neighborhoods are cities within cities in NY. This means that each neighborhood is like its own different little area. They may be in the same city but they all function and operate so separately and differently from each other that they are almost like different places. This is just like Chicago because each area in Chicago is like a different city where you can go a couple of blocks over and feel so lost and out of place.

Sunday, October 21, 2012

The Crucible Response [Entire Play]

In my opinion, one reason the Salem community was so dysfunctional was because it was made up of individuals who would sacrifice anyone and anything in order to have their name cleared or to get their way. The townspeople had ongoing battles within themselves of rather to protect their reputation or their integrity. These inner conflicts are what further intensified the Salem Witch Trials, turning them into a much bigger issue. Another reason is that their government was based on religious beliefs and so they believed that if you questioned their authority or ruling, then you were questioning God, which makes it a much bigger offense. I feel as if Abigail really took advantage of their governing system by saying she knew who was doing witchcraft and at that time, the town was still in a panic from the recent discovery of devilry and therefore, they would've believed just about anybody who said they knew of the people who were performing the devils work. Abigail’s manipulation of the system is what started most of the drama in the play.
Abigail was one of those people who only cared about her reputation. When people would be on the verge of discovering her true intentions, she would lie and scheme her way through, just so they’ll still perceive her as this good, holy young woman, which she wasn't  Overall, I feel as if Abigail was the puppet master and every other person in Salem was her puppets. She single-handedly managed to turn a once peaceful, holy community upside down.
Even though the ending was a little sad, The Crucible as a whole was a great read and it’s twists and turns kept me interested until the very end.

Word Count: 286

Monday, October 15, 2012

Research Paper Outline

THESIS: Since previous actions taken to keep Chicago segregated during the Great Migration had failed, Mayor Daley authorized the building of the Dan Ryan Expressway to prevent blacks from taking white employment and land. It stood as a physical separation of the white and black neighborhoods.

Argument 1: Reasons for blacks wanting to migrate to Chicago & the Great Migration
                  a) Living conditions in the South were poor and during the Great Depression, jobs were scarce, especially for African Americans.
                  b) In the south, blacks had no real economic value and they barely had rights. The segregation and discrimination was at an all time high and the system was very unjust.
                  c) The Chicago Defender painted rosy pictures of the high-paying jobs and good life that awaited black migrants. This sparked the Great Migration where the blacks were seeking to escape the horrible ways of the South by going to the North (CHICAGO).

Argument 2: Mayor Daley's and the whites reasons for wanting segregation and the living conditions the blacks were forced to live under in Chicago's South Side.
                  a) The Irish-Americans started riots because they felt as if the blacks were taking over their factory jobs.
                  b) Being segregated gave whites a feel of power and control over the blacks. It made them feel like they were superior to blacks but if they lived in the same neighborhood as a black, the whites would feel equal which isn't a good feeling to them.
                  c) The Black Belt of Chicago, the high-rise housing projects, Bronzeville, and how one family apartments were split into three and everyone in the building used one toilet. The poor living conditions made the different ethnic neighborhoods easily distinguishable.

Argument 3: While the whites were very upfront with their hatred for the new black residents and their want for segregation, Mayor Daley took on more secretive tasks that would segregate Chicagoans.
                  a) The Dan Ryan expressway, which Daley heavily approved, was moved from it's original route and instead was built through the South Side and North Side of Chicago.
                  b) The work of patrolling the South Side's racial borders to make sure no black was in the whites "area" was often taken care of by gangs like Daley's Hamburg Athletic Club.
                  c) Whites used fear: Abusing the blacks, burning down their homes, spitting on their children (IF THEY LIVED IN A WHITE NEIGHBORHOOD.)

CONCLUSION: Since previous actions taken to keep Chicago segregated during the Great Migration had failed, Mayor Daley authorized the building of the Dan Ryan Expressway to prevent blacks from taking white employment and land. It stood as a physical separation of the white and black neighborhoods.

The Crucible Response [Act 3]

This Act was really interesting to me because it brought out a lot of the secrets being kept in Salem. These secrets, like Abigail and John Proctor's affair, were really tearing the Salem community apart and this is why I feel these Witch Trials have gotten out of hand. During the trial, I think that Deputy Governor Danforth and Judge Hathorne realized they had been tricked by Abigail and her crew but they had too much pride to admit they had been fooled by girls. Abigail's control over the town has really gotten out of hand and it is, in my opinion, the root of all the problems that has occurred in the Courtroom. I feel Danforth and Hathorne abused their power in a way because if they were attacked personally, then they would say that the attacker has attacked the court rather than them which makes it a much bigger problem. I feel like the Salem community is so messed up that once the trials are over, they will never be able to fully recover and become a trusting community.

Word Count: 181

Thursday, October 11, 2012

The Crucible Response [Act 2]

In Act 2, Abigail really emerged as a dominant figure in the Salem community. She accuses people and then almost immediately, their being accused of witchcraft. Abigail has managed to brainwash the townspeople into thinking her accusations are right and that she is doing this to rid all of the devilry from their community but really, she's not. Abigail is just as self-centered as the other people of the town are. Just as she is, the townspeople are only concerned about themselves and they only care about clearing their own names and making themselves look good. Abigail's new found power is further destroying an already damaged community.
Mary Warren falls victim to Abigail's cunning ways and ends up turning into a different person. Mary Warren attempts to convince herself that there is actual evidence against the accused people but deep down, she knows there isn't. I feel as if the main reason Mary went along with the court's accusations is because she knows that Abigail wont like her if she questions Abigail's opinions and if Abigail doesn't like her, Mary fears she might be accused of witchcraft. This act really displays the impact of the witch trials and the madness that they have created in Salem.

Word Count: 206

Monday, October 1, 2012

Notecard Entries

1) For too long, the media has ignored the hyper segregation in the city. Chicago is known as the most segregated city in the United States. The term "hyper segregation" was coined to describe the ghettoized separation of blacks on the South Side and whites on the North. The Dan Ryan Expressway was conceived in clout and racism and born into a pattern of racial segregation that's earned it the reputation as world-famous symbol of how Chicago's politicians used to create ghettos. [1]

2) The U.S. Civil Rights Commission declared Chicago the most segregated city in the country in 1959, and it has not changed much since. Residents were steered into the city’s different neighborhoods in the 19th and 20th centuries through corrupt lending and real estate practices, forcing different groups to live in specific parts of the city. The Dan Ryan Expressway serves as a stark boundary separating black communities on the South Side from the rest of the city. [2]

3) The alignment of the "South Route", as it was called then, was moved to State Street in 1947 when the city approved its comprehensive expressway plan. In retrospect, some involved in the planning of the Dan Ryan Expressway acknowledge engineering was not the only consideration in the alignment of the route. In a few cases, politically connected property owners were spared condemnation. [5]

4) The Great Migration, a long-term movement of African Americans from the South to the North, transformed Chicago between 1916 and 1970. Chicago attracted more than 500,000 of the 7 million African Americans who left the South during these decades. Before this migration, African Americans constituted 2% of Chicago's population; by 1970, they were 33%. What had been in the nineteenth century a largely southern and rural African American culture became a culture deeply infused with urban sensibility in the twentieth century. And what had been a marginalized population in Chicago emerged by the mid-twentieth century as a powerful force in the city's political, economic, and cultural life. [7]

5) For during the early years of the twentieth century, Chicago's racial lines hardened. By 1910, 78 percent of black Chicagoans lived in a chain of neighborhoods on the South Side of Chicago. This “Black Belt” was an area of aging, dilapidated housing that stretched 30 blocks along State Street and was rarely more than several blocks wide. Moreover, a pattern of education discrimination had reemerged, and blacks were still excluded from the civil service, industrial jobs, and most unions. [12]

6) In 1966, Martin Luther King came to Chicago to protest for housing rights because at the time, Chicago was the most segregated city in America with the African-Americans confined to their ghettos on the South and West side. Mayor Richard Daley wanted to keep the city segregated because the segregation guaranteed the middle-class whites didn't leave for the suburbs. William Dawson, an African-American representative and overlord of the South Side, wanted to keep the city segregated so that he can keep his political base. [17]

7)  Before the migration, the city offered few opportunities to dissatisfied black southerners until World War I. Chicago, like the rest of the North, offered freedom from legally sanctioned racial discrimination, but industrial employers turned away African Americans who approached the factory gates. [7]

8) Mayor Daley had a huge role in the segregating of Chicago. The Robert Taylor homes were all black from the start and built within the city's Black Belt. The way the homes were built left no doubt that the Daley era of public housing would be marked by densely packed high-rise towers that vigorously reinforced the city's racial boundaries. Daley's Dan Ryan Expressway which is a 14-laner that separates Bridgeport from the black South Side. [3]

9) In 1951, a mob burned down an entire building just to evict its single black resident. When blacks tried to move beyond Bronzeville, whites used violence to keep them in. This is how the political leaders and the white residents tried to segregate Chicago before the building of the Dan Ryan Expressway. Realtors made "restrictive covenants," vowing privately not to sell houses in white neighborhoods to black families. Since they couldn't move outside of their own neighborhoods, blacks became closed in by white neighborhoods. Bronzeville, for example, quickly grew overcrowded. One family apartments were split into three and everyone in the building used one toilet. The whites gave the blacks the poor living conditions to make the two different ethnic neighborhoods easily distinguishable. [8]

10) In 1937, Carl Hansberry and his family moved into brick three-flat in Woodlawn, an all white neighborhood. They were black. Bricks and bottles were thrown at their home after the family's arrival, and the children were even spat on. The Hansberry family stayed and with their staying came more African-Americans. [18]

11) The separation in Chicago has continued today mainly because of the strong cultural communities that have developed in the city’s different neighborhoods. People born and raised in a specific neighborhood often want to stay there to raise their families and they have lived in specific neighborhoods so long that they don't want to leave because of the emotional connections they have to the area. [2]

12) Thousands of black Southerners poured into Chicago, trying to escape segregation and seeking economic freedom and opportunity. This radically transformed Chicago, both politically and culturally, from an Irish-run city of recent European immigrants. Unfortunately, the sudden change gave rise to many of the disparities that still plague the city, but it also promoted an environment in which many black men and women could rise from poverty to prominence. [6]

13) In 1966, Martin Luther King led marches throughout the all-white neighborhoods of Gage Park and Marquette Park in Chicago in order to eliminate the segregation and get housing rights. Daley went to court for an injunction limiting the size and the hours of the marches. Daley met with King and promised to lobby for more open-housing legislation and build scattered-site housing projects. King left town. Shortly after, Mayor Daley declared that summit had produced nothing but an unenforceable “gentlemen’s agreement.” He outsmarted Dr. Martin Luther King and got what he wanted, to keep the city segregated. [17]

14) When Mayor Daley was in control, he noticed that Chicago's future was the Loop and so he decided to have urban redevelopment demolish low-income minority housing to expand the Loop and create more middle class neighborhoods. Mayor Daley's solution was to further concentrate the Black population, not to promote integration. [13]

15) The blacks migrated north to escape the unjust ways of the south but Chicago wasn't much different.Segregation was in the north too, it was called the black ghetto, a place where jobs were scarce and poverty rampant. During World War l, factories were opening by the dozens, and thousands of rural blacks came north hoping for jobs. So many blacks migrated to Chicago during World War l that they called the South Side "Bronzeville." [8]

16) A Sox fan used the word 'shady' to describe the predominantly black neighborhood in which he didn't want to park his car because the neighborhood is 'shady.' The article then continues to talk about Mayor Daley and the Dan Ryan Expressway. The path of the Dan Ryan expressway runs south to north, creating a rectangular 10 mile long quarantine around "black Chicago." Mayor Daley succeeded in his job to stop people from crossing the large 14-lane Dan Ryan E-Way. [20]

17) Daley's redevelopment also began separating the growing African American population from the white ethnic neighborhoods. The University of  Illinois-Chicago was located to protect the Loop's western side from the eastern expansion of the west side ghetto, just as the Robert Taylor Homes and Dan Ryan Expressway attempted to stop the western expansion of the south side Black Belt. [13]

18) The term "Black Belt" was used to identify the predominately black community on Chicago's South Side. The Black Belt was originally really small since black's had very small living areas. It used to be a narrow corridor extending from 22nd to 31st Streets along State Street. [11]

19)  Milt Hinton departed Mississippi in 1918 heading north for Chicago. His Uncle Bob had made the journey eight years earlier, quickly finding a job as a porter in a hotel. His Uncle Bob would send money back to Mississippi and one by one, Bob's brothers and sisters would join him, each sending part of their earnings to those in the South to help with their basic living expenses. What was left over was put aside for a northbound ticket for the next migrant. [16]

20) James J. Gentry, publisher of the Chicago Bee, suggested that they use his coined word 'Bronzeville' to identify their neighborhood, since it more accurately described the skin tone of its inhabitants. Second and Third Wards on the South Side before were referred to as the “Black Belt”, “Black Ghetto” and occasionally “Darkie Town" by newspapers and Caucasian Chicagoans. Blacks hated those terms and so when James J. Gentry thought of "Bronzeville", it was immediately accepted because it was better and less racist than other names previously used. [21]

21) During the Migration, blacks tried to open up opportunities for themselves which the whites did not like. Steady southern migration raised Chicago's black population to 40,000 by 1910. Recognizing the power that could be derived from this growing community, black leaders began to develop independent black institutions for racial uplift. [12]

22) The tried selecting tenants based on their race as a way to separate before and after Dan Ryan to ensure that no blacks would move into white neighborhoods. In their efforts to clear slums, house the impoverished, and placate real estate interests, the CHA established a rigid set of requirements for tenants, which significantly limited the diversity of residents. Housing for African-Americans prior to federally-funded projects was largely segregated to the “Black Belt,” and was often of the poorest quality. [19]

23) The Chicago Defender played a major role in the Great Migration. The Defender spoke of the hazards of remaining in the overtly segregated south and lauded life in the North. Job listings and train schedules were posted to facilitate the relocation. The Defender also used editorials, cartoons, and articles with blazing headlines to attract attention to the movement, and even went so far as to declare May 15, 1917 the date of the "Great Northern Drive." [22]

24) The expressways had to be threaded through labyrinths of factories and bungalows and those in the way were sacrificed. The Dan Ryan not only dramatically reduced the population in its route, but by paralleling a line of public housing, it reinforced segregated neighborhoods on the South Side. [4]

25) In 1868 they repealed most of the laws that discriminated against blacks.Things were starting to look up.  But by 1877 Democratic parties regained their power of the south and ended reconstruction.  This was devastating to the blacks.  After all the strides they made were reversed.  From holding political offices, the right to vote, and participating as equal members of society was changed. The south gradually reinstated the racially discriminatory laws.  The two main goals they wanted these laws to achieve: disenfranchisement and segregation.  To take away the power that the blacks had gained, the Democratic Party began to stop Blacks from voting. They didn't want blacks to be equal. [9]

26) When World War I halted immigration from Europe while stimulating orders for Chicago's manufactured goods, employers needed a new source of labor for jobs assumed to be “men's work.” Factories opened the doors to black workers, providing opportunities to black southerners eager to stake their claims to full citizenship through their role in the industrial economy. Black women had much less opportunities. [7]

27) Once the Great Migration began, neighborhoods began to develop for the blacks. With at least 50,000 black southerners moving to Chicago between 1916 and 1920, the institutional foundation established before the war provided a base for community development. They added multiple types of churches, really making an impact on Chicago. [12]

28) The Dan Ryan Expressway has 14 Lanes so it is a very large obstacle. The original plan was a three-level roadway, with State Street on the lower level, three southbound expressway lanes on the middle level, and three northbound expressway lanes on the upper level. However, the city's decision to place several large public housing projects along State Street in the South Side complicated development plans for the expressway. The public housing was put on the South Side which is where the blacks lived. They couldnt live anywhere else and so their only option was to live on the South Side. The whites, in turn, moved to the North Side of Chicago. [5]

29) The Chicago Defender highly influenced blacks to come to Chicago and it was a very successful mission. The famous newspaper often listed names of churches and other organizations to whom they could write for help. They also listed jobs that would be available to potential black citizens. The Bethlehem Baptist Association in Chicago assumed the task of helping black migrants find housing and employment. They also helped migrants to adjust to their new environment. [14]

30) Various topics: The Chicago Defender, the nation's leading black newspaper, was widely read throughout the South, and it painted an especially rosy picture of the high-paying jobs and good life that awaited black migrants in Chicago's factories and slaughterhouses. As the city's black population soared, blacks were increasingly concentrated in a distinct ghetto — the South Side's Black Belt. Many of the southern migrants pouring into the Illinois Central Railroad Station clutched the addresses of friends and family who lived in the Black Belt, and those who arrived with no plans were generally steered in that direction. By 1920, the Black Belt was home to about 85 percent of the city's blacks. A mob of four hundred Irish dockworkers went on a bloody rampage against a dozen blacks they regarded as taking jobs from unemployed Irishmen. [23]

31) In June of 1916, a young African-American girl from Alexandria, Louisiana, wrote a letter to the Chicago Defender newspaper asking for help. She wrote: "I have a mother and father my father do all he can for me but it is so hard. A child with any respect about her self or his self [sic] wouldn’t like to see there mother and father work so hard and earn nothing I feel my duty to help" Life in the South was becoming intolerable and she couldn't take it anymore. She wrote to the Chicago Defender because she knew they wrote about better opportunities in Chicago. [15]

32) Most of the urban routes were built next to railroad embankments, but others were criticized for dividing and blighting neighborhoods. The approved route was indeed shifted in 1956, from next to the Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad (400 West) to run next to the Rock Island Line at State Street. [10]

33) Daley implored the county and state to get moving on construction as soon as possible. With the rapidly increasing number of African American migrants, the Expressway had to be built asap. They expressway was moved from it's original location to run straight through the South and North Sides. [5]

34) Mayor Daley was a strong advocate for racial segregation. The work of patrolling the South Side's racial borders was often taken care of by gangs like Daley's Hamburg Athletic Club. Because of these gangs' propensity for violence, blacks who walked through neighborhoods like Bridgeport did so at their own peril. Langston Hughes walked across Wentworth Ave. when he was younger, trying to sight see in Chicago. He came back bruised and swollen. [23]

35) African-Americans living in the South reacted to these negative conditions, and hopeful prospects, by leaving for destinations such as Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Harlem, and St. Louis – increasing the black populations in these cities drastically. Many spoke of this mass movement in biblical terms, equating it with the Israelites leaving Egypt, headed for "The Promised Land." Arriving primarily by train, southern African-Americans poured into urban centers of the North and West. African Americans from Mississippi and Georgia favored Chicago as the place to migrate. [15]

The Crucible Response [Act 1]

The community in "The Crucible" is a very strict one. The Puritan life in Salem is very somber and boring and they allow no room for people to break free and be individuals. That overbearing, close-knit lifestyle is what I feel drove people to turn to the devil. It was a way for them to rebel, stand out and be different from the average person in Salem but that individuality often lead to their death. Its ironic to me how in order to keep their community on track and together, they have to kill people who are apart of the community. 
Parris seemed as if his concern over Betty's health was fake. He seemed more concerned with what the others would think of him and how he would be effected rather than what the others would say about Betty or whether or not she would be okay. He is a very selfish person much like the majority of the characters so far in The Crucible. They all seem to be so concerned with finding out who's a devil just so that they can protect their own name or benefit from it somehow. 


Monday, September 24, 2012

Research Paper Sources

1) Robert Klein Engler. "Chicago's Violent Flash Mobs." American Thinker. Web. September 24, 2012. <>
                       -How flash mobs are a result of the Democratic party physically segregating the city using the Dan Ryan Expressway.

2) Editorial Board. "Chicago Still Separate, Unequal." The Columbia Chronicle. Web. September 23, 2012. <>

                         -Shows how residents were forced to live in specific parts of the city and being separated by landscaping.

3) Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor. "Mayor Richard J. Daley: His Battle for Chicago and the Nation." The Czar of Chicago. Web. September 23, 2012. <>

                        -Tells how Mayor Daley built far to many walls, such as the Dan Ryan Expressway. segregating communities and no bridges

4) Ron Grossman. "In rush, Expressways transformed the City." The Chicago Tribune. Web. September 24, 2012. <>

                        -How expressways transformed and affected the city.

5) Chicago Roads. "Dan Ryan Expressway." Chicago Roads. Web. September 24, 2012. <>

                        -Tells about the details and specs of the Dan Ryan Expressway.

6) Frommers. "Chicago (History)." Frommers. Web. October 1, 2012. <>
                       -Talks about the Great Migration and says it transformed Chicago.

7) James Grossman. "Great Migration." Encyclopedia of Chicago. Web. October 1, 2012. <>
                      -Background information on the Great Migration.

8) Robert Fanuzzi. "Segregation City: Chicago In The 60's." Scholastic. Web. October 1, 2012. <>
                     -Ways the government tried to segregate Chicago before Dan Ryan.

9) Brielle Stonaker, Arica Shephard. "Segregation." Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education. Web. October 1, 2012. <>.
                      -Why the whites and government wanted segregation.

10) Dennis McClendon. "Expressways." Encyclopedia of Chicago. Web. October 1, 2012.
                      -Talks about expressways in Chicago and notes Mayor Daley's intentions for building the Dan Ryan.

11) Wallace Best. "Black Belt." Encyclopedia of Chicago. Web. October 1, 2012. <>
                     -Tells what the black belt of Chicago is.

12) Christopher Manning. "African Americans." Encyclopedia of Chicago. Web. October 3, 2012. <>
                    -Talks about the history of African Americans in Chicago and the Black Belt.

13) John M. Hagedorn. "Violence, Gangs, and the Redivision of Space in Chicago." UIC. Web. October 7, 2012. <>
                    -In Chicago, surges of violence have accompanied three great redivisions of space.

14)  The Library of Congress. "Chicago: Destination for the Great Migration." The Library of Congress. Web. October 9, 2012. <>
                   -Talks about the Great Migration and how life was after the migration.

15) John D. Baskerville. "Heading North: African American Migration." UNI. Web. October 9, 2012. <>
                -Talks about the Great Migrationa and tells about a girl who wrote to Chicago defender.

16) James Grossman. "Chicago and the Great Migration." Illinois Periodicals Online. Book. October 11, 2012. <>
              -Tells a personal story about someone during the Great Migration.

17) Edward McClelland. "How Mayor Daley Outfoxed Martin Luther King." NBC Chicago. Web. October 11, 2012. <>
                    -Tells how Martin Luther King's attempts to eliminate segregation in Chicago failed and why they did.

18) Steve Bogira. "Best Reminder of How Chicago Got So Segregated." Chicago Reader. Web. October 11, 2012. <>
                     -Tells about a family who moved into an all white neighborhood and the after effects.

19) Roosevelt University. "A Social History of Chicago's Public Housing." Roosevelt University. Web. October 11, 2012. <>
                     - Details the selecting process for housing tenants in the early 1900's and the living conditions of African American inhabitants.

20) Dan Camponovo. "Camponovo: 'Shady' is a term more racist than you might think." The Daily Northwestern. Web. October 11, 2012. <>
                        -Discusses the negative use of the word 'Shady'.

21) Dempsey J. Travis. "Bronzeville." Encyclopedia of Chicago. Web. October 12, 2012. <>
                         -Talks about the origins of the term "Bronzeville".

22) PBS. "The Chicago Defender." PBS. Web. October 15, 2012/ <>
                         -The Chicago Defender's role in The Great Migration.

23) Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor. An Excerpt from "American Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley — His Battle for Chicago and the Nation." WikiTree. Book. October 17, 2012. <>
                       -This is an excerpt from a book talking about Mayor Daley's racism and want for segregation.

24) Joe Zekas (INTERVIEWER) "Dempsey Travis, on Chatham and racial segregation in Chicago." Yo! Chicago. Video. October 17, 2012. <>
                   -Dempsey J. Travis speaks on racial segregation in Chicago and African Americans. 

Thursday, September 20, 2012

Response to Crevecoeur

Crevecoeur's ideas of what an American is were positive and it was  persuasive enough to make anyone who doesn't live here to come to America to experience all of the great opportunities.  In "Letters from an American Farmer" Crevecoeur highly supported the idea that people who weren't treated fairly in their homeland and didn't have any rights, benefits, etc., could come here to America to start over and become a new person. One they'd arrived, these individuals would shed their old life's and identities and become an American which meant being rewarded for your hard labor and having freedom as a person.
Crevecoeur saw America as a superior country and a truly great place to live. You were always accepted as yourself and for what you do rather than in other countries where you were judged based on your class level. Crevecoeur noted the difference in how in America when you have crops ready to feed yourself or family, no higher authority would come and take it away or claim parts of it as opposed to his homeland. He believed America was a great place where you were treated like a human being and where opportunity was plentiful.

Word Count: 198

Community Posts

  • School
  • Family Game Day
  • Neighborhood

I am apart of many communities but the one i feel most comfortable in is family game day. Our game day is just a day where the entire family gets together and we participate in many activities such as playing sports or table games such as LCR. Our day usually starts off by meeting up at a set house, usually my grandmothers or my Aunts. Everyone brings in a type of food and we set the big table. The kids usually go outside and play while the adults stay in and play card games. After that we all say prayers and eat.

The expectations of this community is to bring in a dish (for adults), get along with everyone, participate in all activities. Just like everyone else, I am required to look out for younger kids, participate in all activities and just have fun. This day is all about learning what activities everyone likes/dislikes and mainly, spending time with each other. 

This community feels comfortable to me because I am surrounded by family and so i don't feel awkward or out of place. I am around people who love me and care for me and i am playing games that I love to play. Also, I am always in a familiar place so that makes me feel right at home.

Community Song Post

Empire State of Mind

Yeah I'm out that Brooklyn.
Now I'm down in Tribeca.
Right next to DeNiro
But I'll be hood forever
I'm the new Sinatra
And since I made it here
I can make it anywhere
(Yeah they love me everywhere)
I used to cop in Harlem
All of my Dominicanos (Hey yo)
Right there off of Broadway
Brought me back to that McDonalds
Took it to my stash spot
560 State Street
Catch me in the kitchen like Simmons whipping Pastry
Cruising down 8th street
Off-white Lexus
Driving so slow
(but BK, it's from Texas!!)
Me I'm out that BedStuy
Home of that boy Biggie
now I live on Billboard
and I brought my boys with me
Say what up to Ta-ta
Still sipping Mai Tais
Sitting courtside
Knicks and Nets give me high-5
N**ga, I be Spiked out
I could trip a referee
...tell by my attitude that I'm MOST DEFINITELY FROM...

[Alicia Keys]
New York!!!!
Concrete jungle where dreams are made of,
There's nothing you cant do,
Now you're in New York!!!
These streets will make you feel brand new,
the lights will inspire you,
Let's hear it for New York, New York, New York

I made you hot n--ga,
Catch me at the X with OG at a Yankee game,
sh-t I made the Yankee hat more famous than a Yankee can,
you should know I bleed Blue, but I ain't a crip tho,
but I got a gang of n--gas walking with my clique though,
welcome to the melting pot,
corners where we selling rocks,
Afrika bambaataa sh-t,
home of the hip hop,
yellow cab, gypsy cab, dollar cab, holla back,
for foreigners it ain't fitted act like they forgot how to act,
8 million stories out there and they're naked,
city it's a pity half of yall wont make it,
me I gotta plug a special and I got it made,
If Jeezy's payin LeBron, Im paying Dwayne Wade,
3 dice cee-lo
3 card marley,
Labor Day parade, rest in peace Bob Marley,
Statue of Liberty, long live the World Trade,
long live the king yo,
Im from the Empire State thats

[Alicia Keys]
In New York!!!!
Concrete jungle where dreams are made of,
There's nothing you cant do,
Now you're in New York!!!
These streets will make you feel brand new,
the lights will inspire you,
Let's hear it for New York, New York, New York

Welcome to the bright light..

Lights is blinding,
girls need blinders
so they can step out of bounds quick,
the side lines is blind with casualties,
who sip the lite casually, then gradually become worse,
dont bite the apple Eve,
caught up in the in crowd,
now you're in-style,
and in the winter gets cold en vogue with your skin out,
the city of sin is a pity on a whim.
good girls gone bad, the city's filled with them,
Mommy took a bus trip and now she got her bust out,
everybody ride her, just like a bus route,
Hail Mary to the city your a Virgin,
and Jesus cant save you life starts when the church ends,
came here for school, graduated to the high life,
ball players, rap stars, addicted to the limelight,
MDMA got you feeling like a champion,
the city never sleeps better slip you a Ambien

[Alicia Keys]
New York!!!!
Concrete jungle where dreams are made of,
There's nothing you cant do,
Now you're in New York!!!
These streets will make you feel brand new,
the lights will inspire you,
Let's hear it for New York, New York, New York

[Alicia Keys]
One hand in the air for the big city,
Street lights, big dreams all looking pretty,
no place in the World that can compare,
Put your lighters in the air, everybody say yeaaahh
come on, come,

[Alicia Keys]
New York!!!!
Concrete jungle where dreams are made of,
There's nothing you cant do,
Now you're in New York!!!
These streets will make you feel brand new,
the lights will inspire you,
Let's hear it for New York, New York, New York!

During the song, Jay-Z describes a historic American city and a certain mindset that comes with it, the "empire state of mind." "But I'll be hood forever" In this line, Jay-Z displays his loyalty to his city saying that no matter where he goes he'll stay dedicated to his roots and loyal to where he came from. Jay-Z feel as if New York is one of the best cities on earth and that it has so much to offer for any and everyone. In the song, New York is described as an inspiring and exciting place where magic happens.